Macfarlane’s Four o’Clock

Photo Credit: Oregon Department of Agriculture


  • Species Common Name Macfarlane's Four o'Clock
  • Species Scientific Name Mirabilis macfarlanei
  • Federal Listing Status Threatened
  • State Listing Status Endangered


Special needs

Macfarlane's four o'clock occurs on warm, dry, open canyon slopes. Soils are sandy or rocky and often unstable.

Limiting factors

This species has a narrow distribution and is currently known only to Hell’s Canyon and northwestern Idaho. Invasive plant invasions are believed to be a primary limiting factor for Macfarlane's four o'clock. Off-highway vehicle use, construction and maintenance of roads and trails, mining, and herbicide drift are additional threats. Historically, uncontrolled livestock grazing degraded habitat but is no longer a major concern. Inbreeding depression may be a limiting factor for Macfarlane's four o'clock.

Conservation actions

Actions implemented through the recovery plan (1985) contributed to improved species status and downlisting from Endangered to Threatened in 1996. Continue implementing actions specified in the recovery plan and monitoring at permanent plots.

Key reference or plan

Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Conservation